Verifiering och validering

Den tidigare skillnaden mellan verifiering och validering är att verifieringen är en process för att kontrollera designutgångarna mot de angivna programkraven. Tvärtom är programvaruvalidering processen att granska mjukvarespecifikationerna mot användarens behov. Verifiering och validering måste appliceras i varje steg av utvecklingsprocessen. Agila metoder adresserar just det här. Genom daglig verifiering av funktioner och kontinuerlig validering av delleveranser försäkrar man sig om att produkten konvergerar mot något som tekniskt fungerar bra och som uppskattas av användare. Verifiering och validering vanliga ord av engelska och deras betydelser liknar också något men deras användning i branschen , speciellt mjukvaruutveckling förutsätter betydelse i följd av produktens korrekthet. Också kallad V & V är verifiering och validering avgörande för framgången för vilken programvara som helst. Validering och verifiering. Det finns ett flertal definitioner av validering och oftast sätts termen i kontrast till verifiering. Validering innebär en bekräftelse genom undersökning och framläggande av bevis att de särskilda kraven för en specifik, avsedd användning har uppfyllts (Svensk standard SS 020106, citerat i SWEDAC, 2005). Vi mäter och kontrollerar att de krav vi arbetat med är uppfyllda och genomförda. När produkten sedan är tillverkad och klar gäller det att säkerställa att den fungerar som den ska. Då gör vi en slutkontroll, en validering, av produkten.Det kan till exempel handla om att prova en låsmekanism, inte bara en gång utan kanske 10 -15 000 ... Verifiering och validering Verifiering innebär att kontrollera att en produkt uppfyller de krav som den har upphandlats för att uppfylla. Det är alltså en mätning mot en kravspecifikation där varje krav skall kontrolleras om det är uppfyllt eller inte. Verifiering & validering - forts. INGENJÖRSPROCESSEN METODIK ETSA01 VT13 JONAS WISBRANT 11 11 Verifiering och validering – forts. INGENJÖRSPROCESSEN METODIK ETSA01 VT13 White-box testing • Kräver tillgång till koden • Tanken är att testfallen ska täcka all kod – Men vad menas med all kod ?

Help generating puzzles

2019.04.22 11:24 flaccidicus Help generating puzzles

This might be a bit outside the scope of this sub-reddit but I will give it a shot anyhow since someone might have some insight I lack. I am writing my own Sudoku client since I don't like advertising, fancy colors och weird layouts. It's getting along nicely and I use it daily however the quality of my puzzles is lacking at the moment. I struggle mainly with generating puzzles that satisfy the uniqueness criteria.

I have opted for an approach that is a bit slow for really hard puzzles but I have designed around that so it doesn't affect the player. I start out with a known grid, I select a block at random and change place of two columns or two rows. I repeat this a lot of times, in the end I still have a valid puzzle. Next I remove X number of cells at random where X is given by the difficulty selected. This does not produce unique puzzles so to verify that they are unique I solve them computationally and count the number of solutions found. The algorithm for verifying the uniqueness criteria goes roughly like this:
  1. Calculate all possible candidates for each cell
  2. If there are cells with no candidates signal failure
  3. If there are no cells that have more than one candidate signal success
  4. Select the first cell that has the fewest amount of candidates but at least two
  5. For each candidate for the cell do 6-8, and keep track of the number of success signals
  6. Set the candidate as the value of the cell
  7. Remove the value from each column, block and row the affected cell is part of
  8. Restart at 2.
  9. Signal true if the number of success signals is one.

Intuitively this seems to me like it should work as I expect it to. My reasoning is that any puzzles with multiple solutions (the simplest case is are four cells that form a square that all have the same two candidates) would have more than one success signal during the steps five to eight and would thus signal failure in step nine.
This does not seem to be the case since I still get the occasional puzzle that has multiple solutions. Not sure if there is an intricacy that I miss. A lot of other generated Sudoku puzzles seem to have a symmetry that I have not taken into account, but I have a hard time seeing how that could affect the uniqueness. A lot of other algorithms also take into account the amount of cells per column, row and block that could contain a value and weigh that against the number of candidates. Again I can't see how that would affect the algorithm for verifying the uniqueness of the puzzle in any other way than performance.
Before I get the suggestion of formulating it as an SAT problem, I have already done that but I can't get the environment to work properly in my technology stack. So I am forced to stick with the search outlined above. If there are code-savy players out there I could share my code too. Any input is appreciated!
submitted by flaccidicus to sudoku [link] [comments]


2013.06.20 02:47 tabledresser [Table] IAmA: Hi, I am Jac Holzman, Founder of Elektra Records and the lucky guy who signed The Doors.

Verified? (This bot cannot verify AMAs just yet)
Date: 2013-06-19
Link to submission (Has self-text)
Questions Answers
Hello, Mr. Holzman. We've evidently seen your amazing successes with several bands, and you've got a keen eye for talent, but i'd like to hear about some of your failures: What bands did you think were "going to make it", and didn't actually take off? That's an inspired question. Rhinoceros had a modest success, but the reason I don't think it happened was that the band was put together by Elektra producer Paul Rothchild rather than coming together organically. They had some notoriety, but did not have a central heart. Elektra was not just about bands. We were well known for our singer-songwriters, including Carly Simon, Harry Chapin, Judy Collins, Phil Ochs, David Ackles. I thought David was an extraordinary songwriter, but he really didn't want it enough. For some reason, I did not figure out until many years later where his passion lay. It was in the theater. I never should have done an album with David. (We did three.) I should have helped him create a theatrical show. I didn't get that at the time.
There are always things you hope for that do not work. And frequently it's because the artist does not want it badly enough and is not willing to do what it takes by way of travel and public appearances. Love is a perfect example--successful on records but nowhere near the acclaim they deserved.
Any cool stories of Jim Morrison or Freddy Mercury? After the completion of Morrison Hotel, Jim and I went to a Mexican restaurant near the Elektra studios in Los Angeles. Jim ordered a vodka, and a tall vodka - an entire glass. I ordered the smallest beer and Jim turned to me and said: "C'mon! Have another drink. Come out where I am, on the edge." Knowing that I could not keep up with Jim, I said: "the edge is where we all want to be, the trick is not to bleed."
What's the craziest story you've lived with the Doors? And thanks for signing them, they're a big part of my life! When we went to New York to do the Ed Sullivan show, just before the taping we had dinner at a deli nearby. Just the band and me. When we came out of the deli, fans chased us into the Ed Sullivan Theater. I never have been chased by a fan base before, and it was fun.
Hi Jac! I just want to begin by saying thank you for signing so many of my favorite artists. What I wanted to ask you, is that if Jim had never died, what would the future have held for The Doors? Would they be like The Stones today, still touring and churning out music? Interesting question and one I've often thought about. When I last saw Jim, my strong feeling was that if he came back to America, The Doors might have a brief history, but he would probably not choose the rock and roll life again. He saw himself differently.
Hi Jac! I have to say thanks for doing this AMA, I'm a huge Doors fan. I was wondering if after a certain point in the band's history; did you ever feel as though you should drop them as an act? (such as the Miami incident) And also what is your favourite Doors album? I'm curious. The answer is NEVER. I am not a band's hall room monitor. I am their friend, and my job is to help them through the rough spots, not to let them go.
What went through your mind when you seen The Doors rise and fall? Most rock 'n' roll groups go through cycles. Following a meteoric rise, there frequently comes a period when things don't go so well. Sometimes, this is caused by the artist themselves. The Doors were doing great until Miami. After Miami, virtually every one of their live performances was cancelled, and the band felt terrible. The solution was not to lick our wounds, but go into the studio and do something great. That something: Morrison Hotel.
What is your opinion on the Oliver stone movie? I'm not a fan of the Oliver Stone movie, but I respect where he was coming from. Imagine Oliver Stone is boots-deep in muddy Vietnam hearing the liberated music of The Doors and imagining sex, drugs, and rock'n'roll as it must have been in his imagination on a moon-dappled night in Santa Monica. I think the movie is a lot about his fantasy of what 1966 and 1967 in California was like.
How did the controversy of MC-5's Kick Out The Jams affect your label? Was it good or bad? It created problems, but the controversy was about the music; it was about an advertisement they had placed sticking it to the Nordstrom's store chain in the midwest. It caused problems for us, but nothing serious.
Also how do you feel about the punk movement that happened in the late 70's, it seems like alot of bands on Elektra were very influential on the punk scene. Remember that punk started with The Stooges in 1969. Although I didn't get The Stooges, Danny Fields from the Elektra staff urged me to work with them and I did because Danny's faith was so strong. I'm thrilled that Danny was right. Punk was inevitable. Just listen to some of the bands on Nuggets.
finally, what's your favorite Doors record? It's L.A. Woman, followed closely by the first album.
Hi Jac, thanks for doing this AMA. My band are in talks with a subsidiary of a major who want to sign us, the problem is we are already signed to an independent for four albums (the first of which we have just released) and they are not willing to buy us out of the contract we have signed. Any advice for how to get around this? And is it a good idea in the first place? Being signed to a major label, or a subsidiary of a major, is no guarantee of success. Whoever your original label is believed in you, so your job is to make the best record you possibly can, but that record needs to be wood-shedded by continuous performance in front of live audiences. Listen to your audience and their response.
Do you believe that music today lacks the intelligence The Doors (the most intelligent band of all time) had? ABSOLUTELY. The richness that was the 60s was due to the aggressive experimentation artists were willing to risk. The result was that no two bands sounded alike. Unfortunately, that is no longer true.
Since you had a close relationship with The Doors...could you describe your experience with each different member? I'm sure each person had wildly different personalities which contributed to the record making process - especially Jim. The interesting thing about The Doors is how those specific four musicians came together. Jim and Ray knew each other from film school, so that was a natural combination. Ray then picked John and John suggested Robby. So it was a natural coming together. Jim was the most intense and the most secretive. He held himself in reserve. It wasn't easy to get him to talk. Ray was far more open and loquacious and the constant billboard for the band. John and Robby were both very self contained. They expressed themselves primarily through their instruments. Even though the personalities were different, their respect for each other and for their music was a joy to experience.
PS: Don't ever go drinking with Jim either now or in the afterlife!!
What was your first thought when you herd the doors perform? I wasn't impressed. They were doing mostly blues, and not the songs for which they became so famous, but I was struck by Ray, especially. He played two keyboards as if his brain had been cleaved in two. I thought that was amazing and so I came back another night.
Hi Jac big fan I had a few questions: How does it feel knowing that you have signed some of the greatest musicians in all of time? What was Jim Morrison like in person? How did you take hearing about Ray Manzarek's death? The answer to the first question is humbling. I had an incredible run for which I'm enormously grateful. As for question 3, I knew Ray was ill, and I was on my honeymoon when my cell phone began ringing with requests for interviews. When I first saw The Doors and began to look at them carefully, Ray was the most impressive. But as they began to write songs together and emerged as a unit, the individual talents began to shine forth. John Densmore was the only drummer for Jim. He could follow Jim anywhere because of his jazz instincts. And Robby was so fluid on guitar with the ability to adapt his style of playing to the requirements of the music. The Doors were a heaven-sent band, and they changed the trajectory of my life.
What's your personal favourite Doors song? Wow, that's a tough one. I'd say my top 3 favorites are "L.A. Woman", "Riders On The Storm", and "Alabama Song."
I'm 22, and I properly discovered The Doors 2 years ago. Having grown up through the 90s and 00s, I've noticed that despite their enormous explosion of popularity during the 60s/70s, The Doors aren't nearly as prominent in modern culture as a lot of other bands of that era (ie Rolling Stones, Beatles, Queen, Led Zeppelin, The Who, etc). I've always wondered why, and have reached my own conclusions, but why do you think this is? The Rolling Stones are pretty much playing the same repertoire they've been playing for years and it's a nostalgic experience to go see them. Bob Dylan once said "nostalgia is death." I think Jim would agree with him. The Doors' music demands attention. You must give yourself to it. That was the band's intention all along. The Doors are an acquired taste. You must meet them more than halfway.
What advice would you give someone who wanted to start a rock band in today's music industry? Tell the truth about your motivation. Do you want to play for people because you have something truly unique, and you just can't wait to get it out there? Are you willing to do all the hard work necessary? Write songs, hone your performance, and to be there for the fan. If your level of commitment falls below transcendent, don't waste anybody's time. When you have the passion, and you're willing to back it with irrevocable commitment, go out there. Oh, and it helps if you have great songs.
What is the most significant moment you had while interacting with The Doors as both musicians and human beings? Recording "The End" in the studio. It was a magical moment where everything came together in what Ray would have called "cosmic thunderclap." We knew we had something special and that The Doors would be very significant.
Robby Krieger. Incredible guitarist, wild sound. How is his sense of humor? Robby, in those days, stayed very much within himself. But I was just with him the other day and his sense of humor was full flower.
Are there any unreleased Doors Recordings that aren't out but are comming out? Practically everything is out there, but there are some recordings from their early gigs at the London Fog that are crying to be released.
Did you think much of queen (or the doors too) when you first heard of them? Well, I didn't see them. I never saw Queen before decided to sign them. An English studio gave me a tape to listen to which showed their production work. That studio was Trident. But instead of listening to the production, I heard the band and instantly started to pursue them even though they were allegedly signed to Columbia. I found out that the contracts hadn't even gone out from Columbia through Queen's manager whom I chased all over the globe 'til I got him to listen to me. He was impressed by what we had done for The Doors and when the Columbia contract came through, not as agreed, they decided to sign with us. When I finally got to see the band, they were disappointing live performers. But, as you know, I loved working with them. I loved working with Queen. They were all brilliant and fun to hang with.
I'd kill for some music recommendations from Jac Holzman! Any relatively unknown artists you listen to that need some more attention? What do you listen to these days? I listen to a lot of blues and acoustic musicians. I love the Caroline Chocolate Drops on Nonesuch, Geoff Muldaur, Amadou and Mariam, Amy Winehouse for her courage, Melody Gardot, and any of the solo albums by jazz pianist Don Lewis. Highly recommend the new Alligator Blues sampler.
Was there a certain song that made you decide to sign the Doors? Yes. Sometimes you need clues to find an open door to a band's music. The song for me was "Alabama Song." When I heard what they could do with Brecht-Weill was like a key to my understanding of their music. Suddenly, everything became clear quickly. Clear that I had lucked into something special.
Thanks for putting out all that great music! I think the late sixties definitely had the best music. Forever Changes is my favorite album of all time! Do you have any rare Love recordings that haven't been released yet? Anything from what was going to be the album following Forever Changes? The album that followed Forever Changes was Four Sale. Then Arthur left to go to Blue Thumb Records. His wife recently released an album of heretofore undiscovered Love tracks which is available on vinyl and CD. It's worth finding for Love fans.
Hi Jac! This is Karen from the Gloria Stavers website. Did you know Gloria? If so, what was your impression of her? Thank you. Hi Karen. Yes, I did know Gloria. She and Jim hung out a lot before she photographed him. She's also famous for an answer she gave to a question when Jim was in his "lion" phase, that great mane of hair surrounding that leonine face. The question: "Did he ever really look like that?" To which Gloria responded: "Absolutely. But for 20 minutes."
Why do you think the Doors were so influential? Thanks for the AMA - what an amazing band. It's extraordinary music, superior lyrics, and they were intensely unique in who they were as musicians and communicators. The audience was everything to them.
Is he REALLY dead, Jac? In answer to EVERYONE who wonders whether Jim died, I believe he really did. Otherwise, he would have pulled off the biggest Houdini act since...Houdini.
Hi Jac, I'm a huge fan of Nuggets. How did you and Lenny Kaye get together and decide to assemble this amazing collection? Pertinent question, thank you, especially since Nonesuch celebrated its 40th anniversary just last year. I used to visit Lenny at the Village record store at which he worked. I was fascinated by the garage bands of the early 60s who would have a single that was memorable over a short lifespan and no meaningful albums to speak of. So I thought, it might be fun to see if we could license all of these odd tracks, provide a frame of reference for them, and put them together in a 2-LP set. And I had a name. Namely, Nuggets -- simple and to the point. Later that same day, I ran into Lenny, mentioned this to him, asked him if he wanted to pull it together. Close friends ever since. It's the only compendium album not by a single artist that Rolling Stone recognized in the 250 best Rock Albums Of All Time. It's at 191. Nuggets was reissued in a special 40th anniversary edition by Rhino on CD and vinyl last year.
Any plans for an android version of your app? That's a complicated question. Most android devices do not have a common chip set, and so you have to make alternative versions based upon whether it's a Samsung tablet or another tablet. Android is important. Once the android ecosystem smooths out, we're anxious to get going on this.
Thanks for doing this AMA! 1) From your perspective, have the recent and somewhat-recent changes in the record-making business (examples being the advent of digital and streaming music & companies like WMG and UMG acquiring smaller labels) worked in favor of or in opposition to the interests of the musicians making the music? There is nothing good or bad about major labels.
2) Why is it that record labels most often own a recording's copyright instead of the performer(s)? If you look at WMG, Elektra, Atlantic, and Warners came together over a common need to control our own domestic distribution and to improve our ability to connect our music to willing ears of people living overseas. No one forces anybody to sign with a major. Don't have to. It's a choice you make because you believe that the label is sufficiently enthusiastic and it can be helpful in your career. Bruno Mars would be a good example. Being on Elektra/Atlantic helped him.
P.S. - I saw your son Adam playing with Steven Wilson's band about a month ago; he (the whole band, really) was incredible. Generally, labels own the copyrights to the recordings because they fully finance the making of the record and commit large sums to its marketing. The copyright is in the recording, not in the artists' material. That, the artist owns. And, in time, digital copyrights revert to the artists anyway. If you wanna own all your own material, and can finance it yourself, you may not need a major. I'm a personal believer in independent record making. Elektra came a major by virtue of luck, selection of our artists, and our ability over time to connect those artists. I encourage independent record making. It's a steep learning curve, but it's a great ride.
Hello Jac, thanks for doing this AMA and for all the bands/artists you have signed over the years. What were some of the superlatives and special talents you looked for when an artist or band wanted to be signed? I look for my personal reaction to a band. I ask myself the following questions: 1) Have I heard this before? 2) Do I like it? 3) Is this band sufficiently differentiated from everything else out there? 4) Will they be fun to work with? 5) (And this was true back in the 60s) Have I heard enough GREAT material for two albums?
What's the real reason The Doors didn't play Woodstock? They weren't asked. They didn't play Monterey either because they weren't asked.
What's your zombie plan? I'm not a Zombies fan, nor am I a Rob Zombie fan.
Is there ANY live recording of the song "Strange Days??" please tell me im dying to know! There is a live recording of "Strange Days" which may have been taped at the London Fog. A piece of that recording appears within the text of the section in The Doors App (available in the iTunes App store) devoted to their early days at the London Fog. You'll find it in the section following the prologue that deals with their first studio album.
You've probably been through countless audio setups in your lifetime... what brand or type of speakers/equipment do you think every hi-fi enthusiast should have? I prefer two power amplifiers and old speakers that age like Strads over time. Though my ears are a bit shot from flying airplanes, I use a tube amp with century 100 JBL speakers. They sound great. Speaker placement is a matter of taste. Try different parts of the room and also raising speakers above the floor 6-8 inches.
Who would you put in your ultimate super group? You have to pick from the artists you signed. Can be whole groups or individual artists. Go! That's a tough one. No two artists on Elektra sounded alike or came from similar life experiences. I think you could take Ray and put him in just about any band because of his versatility and broad music knowledge. When you're putting together a rhythm section, you have to make sure that drums and bass are simpatico and play on similar wavelengths. It's a question worth my thinking, but I don't have an answer now. I've always been amazed at how bands find each other, and no two stories are alike. But bands who do not come together naturally tend to implode quickly because there is not enough sharing of life experience or musical preferences.
What was the most challenging part of creating the app and how did you decide what to include? Good question. The most challenging aspect was figuring out how to tell the story. All of the music, the photos, the special videos, the writing, the assemblage, was all designed to tell The Doors story to their established fans and to a new generation. It's a very dense app with over 1500 unique pieces, many of them custom created.
We only included photos, videos, audio snippets, if they advanced the story of The Doors, not only during the period of their peak of popularity, but in the years that followed.
The Doors have been blessed by other people loving their songs such as Francis Coppola who used "The End" to begin "Apocalypse Now." On the app, Francis tells the story of how this came to be. If you go through the app starting Friday evening after work, have at your fingertips any comestibles comfortable to you, you will be at it until dawn breaks the following day. It's a grand rock'n'roll story and I wanted to do the app because it was the only way that we could combine music, graphics, photos, videos, in the way that they would support each other, unlike a box set, which has separate DVDs, CDs, photos. We were able to creatively marry all of the elements into a whole. I spent well over a year doing this with a team of talented people. And there's one important point: The Doors App is never finished. The first update will be released in September with a special tribute to Ray, improved navigation, and deeper exploration. There's a lot of new material coming. The Doors App is a living thing, not like a book which you can't add to. It is designed for change and improves our ability to tell the story and share newly discovered materials.
I don't have a question for you, Mr Holzman, I just want to thank you for recognising the potential and signing the Doors. My dad listening to them when I was a tiny little girl is one of my first memories and they are still my all time favourite band. To an independent record maker like myself, your words are exquisite validation of why we do what we do. Thank you.
Hello Mr. Holzman, I don't really have anything to ask concerning the Doors, but did want to mention that as a big fan of Steven Wilson, the addition of your son Adam to his touring band and latest album has been a joy to hear, and he's certainly an extremely talented musician! Thank you. Adam loves playing with Steven Wilson. But if you ask Adam, he will tell you of the hours Ray would spend teaching him various keyboard tricks and shortcuts. Ray was Adam's keyboard hero.
Last updated: 2013-06-24 00:32 UTC
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